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Lysyl Oxidase-Like Protein 2 Promotes Tumor Lymphangiogenesis and Lymph Node Metastasis in Breast Cancer
Wang, C.; Xu, S.; Tian, Y. (...)
【来源】:NEOPLASIA, 2019, 21(4), 413-427
【摘要】:Tumor lymphangiogenesis has been previously documented to predict regional lymph node metastasis and promote the spread to distant organs. However, the underlying mechanism initiating tumor lymphangiogenesis remains unclear. Here we described a novel role of tumor cell-derived Lysyl Oxidase-like protein 2 (LOXL2) in promoting lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis in breast cancer. Immunohistochemistry (INC) analysis of samples from breast cancer patients showed that the expression of LOXL2 was positively correlated with lymphatic vessel density and breast cancer malignancy. In animal studies, LOXL2-overexpressing breast cancer cells significantly increased lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis, whereas knockdown of LOXL2 suppressed both processes. In order to study the mechanisms of lymphangiogenesis progression, we performed further in vitro investigations and the data revealed that LOXL2 significantly enhanced lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) invasion and tube formation through directly activation of the Akt-Snail and Erk pathways. Moreover, LOXL2 also stimulated fibroblasts to secrete high level of pro- lymphangiogenic factors VEGF-C and SDF-1 alpha. Taken together, our study elucidates a novel function of tumor cell secreted LOXL2 in lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis, demonstrating that LOXL2 serves as a promising target for anti-lymphangiogenesis and anti-metastasis therapies for breast cancer.